Processed Food VS Unprocessed
Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain: An Inpatient Randomized Controlled Trial of Ad Libitum Food Intake
Finally some credible study, when 10 male and 10 female admitted to stay in the HIH Clinical Center for Metabolic Research for 28 days.
20 inpatient adults received ultra-processed and unprocessed diets for 14 days each.
During each diet phase, the subjects were presented with three daily meals and were instructed to consume as much or as little as desired.
Ultra-Processed group + 1LB/WEEK of BW*
Unprocessed group – 1LB/WEEK of BW*
The Ultra-Processed grout ate in arvage + 500 CALS/DAY
We investigated whether ultra-processed foods affect energy intake in 20 weight-stable adults, aged (mean ± SE) 31.2 ± 1.6 years and BMI = 27 ± 1.5 kg/m2. Subjects were admitted to the NIH Clinical Center and randomized to receive either ultra-processed or unprocessed diets for 2 weeks immediately followed by the alternate diet for 2 weeks. Meals were designed to be matched for presented calories, energy density, macronutrients, sugar, sodium, and fiber. Subjects were instructed to consume as much or as little as desired. Energy intake was greater during the ultra-processed diet (508 ± 106 kcal/day; p = 0.0001), with increased consumption of carbohydrate (280 ± 54 kcal/day; p < 0.0001) and fat (230 ± 53 kcal/day; p = 0.0004), but not protein (−2 ± 12 kcal/day; p = 0.85). Weight changes were highly correlated with energy intake (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001), with participants gaining 0.9 ± 0.3 kg (p = 0.009) during the ultra-processed diet and losing 0.9 ± 0.3 kg (p = 0.007) during the unprocessed diet. Limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods may be an effective strategy for obesity prevention and treatment.
This study did not include a weight-maintenance run-in period or a washout period between test diets. These design choices were made to lessen the burden to the subjects and reduce the likelihood of dropouts, which was successful because all 20 subjects who successfully screened for the study also completed. To partially address the lack of run-in or washout periods, we compared ad libitum energy intake during the final week of each test diet period and the substantial diet differences persisted. The lack of a run-in period complicates the interpretation of the baseline blood measures in comparison to those obtained at the end of each test diet, and all such diet comparisons were potentially confounded by the substantial differences in energy intake and corresponding weight changes.
Full report here: https://bit.ly/2KH6lON